Sympathetically Maintained Pain

Also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), complex regional pain syndrome, or causalgia is described as a continuous burning pain that usually follows some type of trauma to the area. Any stimulation of the excitatory nervous system such as in fear or anxiety can exacerbate this condition.

Although relatively uncommon within the orofacial region, it is confirmed by blockade of the sympathetic stellate ganglion.